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In 2003, in the State Police the Internal Security Bureau was established, whose key purpose was to detect and prevent violations, committed by employees of the State Police.

On the 30th of July 2013, in the meeting, Cabinet of Ministers endorsed the concept of separating functions of the Internal Security Bureau from the State police by creating a new public administration institution – Internal Security Office, located directly under the supervision of the Minister for the Interior. The concept was intended to create a institution, independent from the State Police, which carries out preventive measures, pre-trial investigation and operational activities.

On the 17th of December 2014, the Parliament adopted the "Internal Security Bureau Act", establishing the legal status, tasks and competences of the authority. The law becomes effective on the 1st of November 2015, simultaneously with the actual beginning of operation of the Internal Security Bureau. The head of the Internal Security Bureau is Valters Murnieks (Valters MÅ«rnieks).

With the coming into effect of the law, areas of responsibility of the expanded newly established office are essential – now the purpose of the Internal Security Bureau is to investigate offences, committed not only by officials and employees of the State Police, but also the rest of the subordinated institutions (except Latvian Security Police) of the Ministry of the Interior. The Internal Security Bureau is also investigating the violence-related crimes, which, in the course of their duties, were committed by prison administration officials with special ranks, employees of the Port Police and the Municipal Police.